Annex 1 — Personnel Licensing Chapter 1

cessation of the problematic use of substances and upon determination that the person’s continued performance of the function is unlikely to jeopardize safety.

Note.- Guidance on suitable methods of identification (which may include biochemical testing on such occasions as pre-employment, upon reasonable suspicion, after accidents/incidents, at intervals, and at random) and on other prevention topics is contained in the Manual on Prevention of Problematic Use of Substances in the Aviation Workplace (Doc 9654).

1.2.8 Approved training and

approved training organization

Note.- The qualifications required for the issue of personnel licences can be more readily and speedily acquired by applicants who undergo closely supervised, systematic and continuous courses of training, conforming to a planned syllabus or curriculum. Provision has accordingly been made for some reduction in the experience requirements for the issue of certain licences and ratings prescribed in these Standards and Recommended Practices, in respect of an applicant who has satisfactorily completed a course of approved training.

1.2.8.1 Approved training shall provide a level of competency at least equal to that provided by the minimum experience requirements for personnel not receiving such approved training.

1.2.8.2 The approval of a training organization by a State shall be dependent upon the applicant demonstrating compliance with the requirements of Appendix 2.

Note.- Guidance on approval of a flight crew training organization can be found in the Manual on the Approval of Flight Crew Training Organizations (Doc 9841).

1.2.9 Language proficiency

1.2.9.1 Aeroplane, airship, helicopter and powered-lift pilots and those flight navigators who are required to use the telephone aboard an aircraft shall demonstrate the ability speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony

Note.- Pursuant to Article 42 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation, paragraph 1.2.9.1 does not apply to whose licences are originally issued prior to March 2004 but, in any case, does apply to personnel whose remain valid after 5 March 2008.

1.2.9.2 Air traffic controllers and aeronautical station shall demonstrate the ability to speak and understand language used for radiotelephony communications.

1.2.9.3 Recommendation - Flight engineers, and glider and free balloon pilots should have the ability to speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony communications.

1.2.9.4 As of 5 March 2008, aeroplane, airship, helicopter and powered-lift pilots, air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators shall demonstrate the ability to speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony communications to the level specified in the language proficiency requirements in Appendix 1.

1.2.9.5 Recommendation.— Aeroplane, airship, helicopter and powered-lift pilots, flight navigators required to use the radiotelephone aboard an aircraft, air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators should demonstrate the ability to speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony communications to the level specified in the language proficiency requirements in Appendix 1.

1.2.9.6 As of 5 March 2008, the language proficiency of aeroplane, airship, helicopter and powered-lift pilots, air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators who demonstrate proficiency below the Expert Level (Level 6) shall be formally evaluated at intervals in accordance with an individual’s demonstrated proficiency level.

1.2.9.7 Recommendation- The language proficiency of aeroplane, airship, helicopter and powered-lift pilots, flight navigators required to use the radio-telephone aboard an aircraft, air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators who demonstrate proficiency below the Expert Level (Level 6) should be formally evaluated at intervals in accordance with an individual’s demonstrated proficiency level, as follows:

a) those demonstrating language proficiency at the Operational Level (Level 4) should be evaluated at least once every three years; and

b) those demonstrating language proficiency at the Extended Level (Level 5) should be evaluated at least once every six years.

Note 1.- Formal evaluation is not required for applicants who demonstrate expert language proficiency, e.g. native and very proficient non-native speakers with a dialect or accent intelligible to the international aeronautical community.

Note 2.- The provisions of 1.2.9 refer to Annex 10, Volume II, Chapter 5, whereby the language used for radiotelephony communications may be the language normally used by the station on the ground or English. In practice, therefore, there will be situations whereby flight crew members will only need to speak the language normally used by the station on the ground.

 

No.168                                                                                            1-8                                                                                                22/11/07

 

 

 

APPENDIX 1. REQUIREMENTS FOR PROFICIENCY IN

LANGUAGES USED FOR RADIOTELEPHONY COMMUNICATIONS

(Chapter 1, Section 1.2.9, refers)

 

 

1. General

 

 

Note.- The ICAO language proficiency requirements include the holistic descriptors at Section 2 and the ICAO Operational Level (Level 4) of the ICAO Language Proficiency Rating Scale in Attachment A. The language proficiency requirements are applicable to the use of both phraseologies and plain language.

To meet the language proficiency requirements contained in Chapter 1, Section 1.2.9, an applicant for a licence or a licence holder shall demonstrate, in a manner acceptable to the licensing authority, compliance with the holistic descriptors at Section 2 and with the ICAO Operational Level (Level 4) of the ICAO Language Proficiency Rating Scale in Attachment A.

 

 

2. Holistic descriptors

 

Proficient speakers shall:

a) communicate effectively in voice-only (telephone/radio-telephone) and in face-to-face situations;

b) communicate on common, concrete and work-related topics with accuracy and clarity;

c) use appropriate communicative strategies to exchange messages and to recognize and resolve misunderstandings (e.g. to check, confirm, or clarify information) in a general or work-related context;

d) handle successfully and with relative ease the linguistic challenges presented by a complication or unexpected turn of events that occurs within the context of a routine work situation or communicative task with which they are otherwise familiar; and

e) use a dialect or accent which is intelligible to the aeronautical community.

 

______________________

 

ANNEX-1                                                                              APP-1-1                                                                                               23/11/06

 


ANNEX 1 - ATTACHMENT A

ICAO LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY RATING SCALE

1.1 Expert, extended and operational levels

 

LEVEL

PRONUNCIATION

Assumes a dialect and/or accent intelligible to the aeronautical community.

STRUCTURE

Relevant grammatical structures and sentence patterns are determined by language functions appropriate to the task.

VOCABULARY

FLUENCY

COMPREHENSION

INTERACTIONS

Expert

6

 

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation, though possibly influenced by the first language or regional variation, almost never interfere with ease of understanding.

Both basic and complex grammatical structures and sentence patterns are consistently well controlled.

Vocabulary range and accuracy are sufficient to communicate effectively on a wide variety of familiar and unfamiliar topics. Vocabulary is idiomatic, nuanced, and sensitive to register.

Able to speak at length with a natural, effortless flow. Varies speech flow for stylistic effect, e.g. to emphasize a point. Uses appropriate discourse markers and connectors spontaneously.

Comprehension is consistently accurate in nearly all contexts and includes comprehension of linguistic and cultural subtleties.

Interacts with ease in nearly all situations. Is sensitive to verbal and non-verbal cues and responds to them appropriately.

Extended

5

 

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation, though influenced by the first language or regional variation, rarely interfere with ease of understanding.

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are consistently well controlled.

Complex structures are attempted but with errors which sometimes interfere with meaning.

Vocabulary range and accuracy are sufficient to communicate effectively on common, concrete, and work-related topics. Paraphrases consistently and successfully. Vocabulary is sometimes idiomatic.

Able to speak at length with relative ease on familiar topics but may not vary speech flow as a stylistic device. Can make use of appropriate discourse markers or connectors.

Comprehension is accurate on common, concrete, and work related topics and mostly accurate when the speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events. Is able to comprehend a range of speech varieties (dialect and/or accent) or registers.

Responses are immediate, appropriate, and informative. Manages the speaker/listener relationship effectively.

Operational

4

 

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation but only sometimes interfere with ease of understanding.

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns are used creatively and are usually well controlled. Errors may occur, particularly in unusual or unexpected circumstances, but rarely interfere with meaning.

Vocabulary range and accuracy are usually sufficient to communicate effectively on common, concrete, and work-related topics. Can often paraphrase successfully when lacking vocabulary in unusual or unexpected circumstances.

Produces stretches of language at an appropriate tempo. There may be occasional loss of fluency on transition from rehearsed or formulaic speech to spontaneous interaction, but this does not prevent effective communication. Can make limited use of discourse markers or connectors. Fillers are not distracting.

Comprehension is mostly accurate on common, concrete, and work- related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users. When the speaker is confronted with a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events, comprehension may be slower or require

Clarification strategies. Responses are usually immediate, appropriate, and informative. Initiates and maintains exchanges even when dealing with an unexpected turn of events. Deals adequately with apparent misunderstandings by checking, confirming, or clarifying.

Levels 1, 2 and 3 are on subsequent page.

ATT A-1                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23/11/06

 

 

Annex 1 — Personnel Licensing - ATTACHMENT A

1.2 Pre-operational, elementary and pre-elementary levels

 

LEVEL

PRONUNCIATION

Assumes a dialect and/or accent intelligible to the aeronautical community.

STRUCTURE

Relevant grammatical structures and sentence patterns are determined by language functions appropriate to the task.

VOCABULARY

FLUENCY

COMPREHENSION

INTERACTIONS

Pre-operational

3

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are influenced by the first language or regional variation and frequently interfere with ease of understanding.

Basic grammatical structures and sentence patterns associated with predictable situations are not always well controlled. Errors frequently interfere with meaning.

Vocabulary range and accuracy are often sufficient to communicate on common, concrete, or work-related topics, but range is limited and the word choice often inappropriate. Is often unable to paraphrase successfully when lacking vocabulary.

Produces stretches of language, but phrasing and pausing are often inappropriate. Hesitations or slowness in language processing may prevent effective communication. Fillers are sometimes distracting.

Comprehension is often accurate on common, concrete, and work- related topics when the accent or variety used is sufficiently intelligible for an international community of users. May fail to understand a linguistic or situational complication or an unexpected turn of events.

Responses are sometimes immediate, appropriate, and informative. Can initiate and maintain exchanges with reasonable ease on familiar topics and in predictable situations. Generally inadequate when dealing with an unexpected turn of events.

Elementary

2

Pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are heavily influenced by the first language or regional variation and usually interfere with ease of understanding.

Shows only limited control of a few simple memorized grammatical structures and sentence patterns.

Limited vocabulary range consisting only of isolated words and memorized phrases.

Can produce very short, isolated, memorized utterances with frequent pausing and a distracting use of fillers to search for expressions and to articulate less familiar words.

Comprehension is limited to isolated, memorized phrases when they are carefully and slowly articulated.

Response time is slow and often inappropriate. Interaction is limited to simple routine exchanges.

Pre-elementary

1

Performs at a level below the Elementary level.

Performs at a level below the Elementary level.

Performs at a level below the Elementary level.

Performs at a level below the Elementary level.

Performs at a level below the Elementary level.

Performs at a level below the Elementary level.

ATT A-2                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23/11/06

 

Note The Operational Level (Level 4) is the minimum required proficiency level for radiotelephony communication. Levels 1 through 3 describe Pre-elementary, Elementary, and Pre-operational levels of language proficiency, respectively, all of which describe a level of proficiency below the ICAO language proficiency requirement. Levels 5 and 6 describe Extended and Expert levels, at levels of proficiency more advanced than the minimum required Standard. As a whole, the scale will serve as benchmarks for training and testing, and in assisting candidates to attain the ICAO Operational Level (Level 4).

 

 

 

Doc 9835 AN/453

 

 

Manual on the Implementation of
ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements

 

 

FOREWORD

 

Safety experts are constantly seeking to identify means of improving safety  in order to reduce  the  already  low  accident  rates. With mechanical  failures  featuring  less  prominently  in  aircraft  accidents, more  attention  has  been  focussed  in  recent  years  on  human  factors  that  contribute  to  accidents.

Communication is one human element that is receiving renewed attention.

 

In 1998, the ICAO Assembly, taking note of several accidents and incidents where the language proficiency  of  pilot  and  air  traffic  controller  were  causal  or  contributory  factors,  formulated  Assembly Resolution  A32-16  in  which  the  ICAO  Council  was  urged  to  direct  the  Air  Navigation  Commission  to consider, with a high level of priority,  the matter of English language proficiency and to complete the task of strengthening  the  relevant  provisions  of  Annex  1 —  Personnel  Licensing  and  Annex  10 —  Aeronautical Telecommunications,  with  a  view  to  obligating  Contracting  States  to  take  steps  to  ensure  that  air  traffic control  personnel  and  flight  crews  involved  in  flight  operations  in  airspace  where  the  use  of  the  English language is required are proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in the English language.

 

Subsequently,  the  Air  Navigation  Commission  established  the  Proficiency  Requirements  in Common English Study Group (PRICESG) to assist the Secretariat in carrying out a comprehensive review  of the existing provisions concerning all aspects of air-ground and ground-ground voice communications and  to  develop  new  provisions  as  necessary.  In March  2003,  the Council  adopted  amendments  to  Annex  1, Annex 6 — Operation of Aircraft, Annex 10, Annex 11 — Air Traffic Services, and  the Procedures  for Air Navigation Services — Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM, Doc 4444) relating to language proficiency in international civil aviation. 

 

In  order  to  support  States’  efforts  to  comply  with  the  strengthened  provisions  for  language proficiency, the development and publication of guidance material compiling comprehensive information on a range of aspects related to language proficiency training and testing were seen as necessary. While the ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements were developed for use in assessing language proficiency in all languages used for radiotelephony communications, not just in the English language, much of the focus of this manual  is  on English  language  training  issues,  as  this  is  the  area  in which most States  and  aircraft operators  require  specific  guidance.  The  principles,  however,  are  largely  transferable  to  other  language training programmes as well. 

 

The purpose of this manual is not to provide a comprehensive language  learning education to language instructors or training programme developers, nor to provide a curriculum — tasks well beyond the scope of this document given the breadth of language training and testing activities required — but rather to serve  as  a  guide.  The  target  audience  for  this  manual  includes  the  training  managers  of  civil  aviation administrations,  the  airline  industry,  and  training  organizations.  The material  contained  in  this manual  is drawn from a number of sources and is expressed in ways designed to be accessible to laypersons outside the field of applied linguistics and language teaching. This guidance material is of special interest to aviation specialists who oversee the implementation of appropriate language training and testing programmes.

 

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

Introduction

 

1.  Inadequate language proficiency has played a role in accidents and incidents and led to a review of ICAO language requirements.

 

Assembly Resolution  A32-16  urged  the Council  to  direct  the  Air Navigation Commission  (ANC)  to consider  this matter with a high  level of priority, and  complete  the  task of strengthening provisions related to the use of the English language for radiotelephony communications. 

 

2.  Both ICAO phraseologies and plain language are required for safe radiotelephony communications. 

3.  ICAO  has  adopted  strengthened  language  proficiency  requirements  for  radiotelephony communications.

4.  All States and organizations have a role to play in improving communications.

 

 

ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) concerning Language Proficiency Requirements

 

1.  The ICAO language proficiency requirements:

  a)  strengthen the provisions related to language use in radiotelephony communications, both for the language of the station on the ground and, in airspace where it is required, for English, from the level of Recommendations to Standards;

  b)  establish minimum skill level requirements for language proficiency for flight crews and air traffic controllers;

  c)  introduce  an  ICAO  language  proficiency  rating  scale  applicable  to  both  native  and  non-native speakers; 

  d)  clarify the requirement for the use of both plain language and phraseologies;

  e)  standardize on the use of ICAO phraseologies;

  f)  recommend a testing schedule to demonstrate language proficiency; and

  g)  provide for service provider oversight of personnel compliance.

2.  Annex 10 SARPs clarify that ICAO phraseologies shall be used whenever possible.

3.  Annex 1 SARPs describe how language should be used for radiotelephony communication.

4.  The language proficiency requirements in Annex 1 apply equally to native and non-native speakers.

5.  Pilots and controllers are required to demonstrate Operational Level 4 language proficiency in the use of both ICAO phraseology and plain language by 2008.

6.  A  Standard in Annex 1 stipulates recurrent testing for pilots and controllers who demonstrate language proficiency below Expert Level 6.

7.  Annexes 6 and 11 stipulate service provider or airline oversight of personnel language proficiency.

 

Linguistic Awareness

 

1.  The ICAO language proficiency requirements apply to native and non-native speakers alike.

2.  The burden of improving radiotelephony communications should be shared by native and non-native speakers.

  a)  States  should  ensure  that  their  use  of  phraseologies  aligns  as  closely  as  possible  with  ICAO standardized phraseologies. 

  b)  Pilots and controllers should be aware of the natural hazards of cross-cultural communication.

  c)  Native and other expert users of English should refrain from the use of idioms, colloquialisms, and other jargon in radiotelephony communications and should modulate their rate of delivery.

  d)  Native  speakers must ensure  that  their  variety of English  is  comprehensible  to  the  international aeronautical community.

  e)  Plain language should be specific, explicit, and direct.

  f)  English-speaking organizations, airlines or  training  centres may wish  to  explore how  they might provide  cost-efficient  English  language  learning  opportunities  to  code  share  partners  and  other airlines at minimal cost.

 

Language Training and Radiotelephony Communications

 

1.  An  important  first  step  in  the  establishment  of  efficient  and  cost-effective  language  learning programmes is the selection of appropriately and adequately qualified teachers.

  a)  Learning  a  language  is  a  great  deal  more  complex  than  the  familiar  use  of  our  own  native language in our daily lives often leads us to believe.

  b)  Language  teaching  is  a  professional  activity  that  requires  specialized  training  and  is  further distinguished from other teaching activities because of the unique nature of language learning: a complex blend of skill, knowledge and cultural awareness, combining physical components with mental and communicative processes.

  c)  A chart outlining appropriate qualifications for a language training and testing specialist is provided in this chapter.

2.  Aeronautical  subject  matter  experts  (SME)  should  collaborate  with  language  teachers  to  develop accurate and effective programmes.

  a)  The SME  can  ensure  accurate  and  appropriate  training  content,  and  the  language  teacher  can ensure that delivery focusses on language learning.

  b)  The  task  of  teaching  language  classes  or  developing  appropriate  language  learning  materials should be guided by language teaching experts and material developers.

3.  Flight  crews  and  air  traffic  controllers  need  to  acquire  phraseologies,  but  aviation  English  training should not be limited to phraseologies. 

4.  Language proficiency  is an  intricate  interplay of knowledge, skills, and competence,  requiring much more than memorization of vocabulary items. 

5.  Many factors influence the language learning process. It is difficult to predict how long any particular individual will require to reach the ICAO Operational Level 4 proficiency; as a general rule of thumb, between  100  and  200  hours  of  language  learning  contact  hours  are  required  for  measurable improvement. This number can be  reduced by  involvement  in specific-purpose classes which  focus solely on speaking and listening. 

6.  There are no short cuts in language learning. Time, motivation, and mature effort are always required. 

7.  Adherence  to  the  standards  set  by  a  number  of  professional  language  teaching  associations  best guarantees effective programmes.

 

Compliance with ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements

 

1.  Until 5 March 2008, States may continue to use the procedures they currently have in place to assess the English proficiency of flight crews and controllers.

2.  The  relative  facility  to  assess  proficiency  at  the  expert  level  allows  flexibility  in  the  way  the assessment is made.

3.  Licensing  authorities  should  require  a  specialized  evaluation  (or  test)  of  those  who  do  not demonstrate Expert proficiency.

4.  Phraseologies-only testing is not appropriate.

5.  Demonstration of actual speaking and listening ability is required.

 

Aviation Language Testing

 

1.  Language testing in aviation has high stakes because careers and safety are at stake.

  a)  Language testing is a specialized professional activity.

  b)  Language testing is, on the whole, an unregulated industry. 

  c)  General  lack of awareness of the professional requirements for language testing, combined with the high-stakes nature of language testing, might present a risk if inadequately prepared tests are used. 

2.  Tests prepared by people who do not have the specialized knowledge and experience possessed by language testing professionals may be adequate for placing someone within a training programme or for judging student progress, but the need for the reliability and validity of language proficiency tests in an aviation context is very high.

  a)  With  careers  and  possibly  lives  at  stake,  administrations  should  turn  to  language  testing professionals  in order  to ensure  that  the  tests used or developed  for compliance with  the  ICAO language proficiency requirements will provide reliable and valid results.

  b)  A  code  of  ethics  and  a  sample  code  of  practice  to  guide  test  development  are  provided  in Appendix D to this manual. 

  c)  All participants and stakeholders — testers, test developers, and test users — involved in aviation language testing have the responsibility to ensure that the language proficiency tests they select, provide, or develop for the aviation industry are valid, reliable, effective and appropriate. 

  d)  Test developers, administrators and providers, in particular, are accountable to the stakeholders: to the pilots and controllers taking their tests; to the airlines and air navigation service providers contracting for the testing, and  to the passengers relying on the individual language skills of the airline pilots and air traffic controllers.

3.  Testing services, rather than “a test”, are required. 

4.  Direct, communicative proficiency tests of speaking and listening abilities are appropriate assessment tools  for  the aviation  industry and will allow organizations  to determine whether  flight crews and air traffic controllers are able to meet the ICAO language proficiency Standards.

  a)  The ICAO language proficiency requirements point towards an aviation context for testing.

  b)  Phraseologies-only testing is not appropriate.

  c)  Indirect tests of grammatical knowledge, reading or writing are not appropriate.

  d)  Tests  that  test  proficiency  in  another  specific-purpose  context  (academics  or  business)  are  not appropriate.

 

Aviation Language and Aeronautical Radiotelephony Communicative Language Functions

 

1.  There are three distinct roles of language as a factor in aviation accidents and incidents.

  a)  Use of phraseologies;

  b)  Proficiency in plain language;

  c)  Use of more than one language.

2.  The following information and material in Appendix B will support curriculum development for aviation language programmes: 

  a)  Aeronautical communicative language functions;

  b)  Inventory of events and domains;

  c)  Priority lexical domains;

  d)  Aviation language tasks.

 

Additional Support for Teaching and Learning

 

Additional Support for Teaching and Learning contains  three  brief  articles  directed,  in  turn,  to  aviation  language  teachers,  material developers, and to pilots and air traffic controllers.

 

 

APPENDICES

 

Appendix A.    ICAO SARPs 

 

Part I.    Extracts from ICAO Annexes 1, 6, 10 and 11.

Part II.   ICAO Language Proficiency Rating Scale

Part III.  Explanation of rating scale

 

Appendix B.    Aviation Language

 

Part I.    Communicative Language Functions, Events, Domains and Tasks Associated with Aviation

Part II.   Events and Domains

Part III.  Priority Lexical Domains

Part IV. Language Tasks of Air Traffic Controllers.

Part V.   Four-Word Clusters in Spoken English

 

Appendix C.    Case Studies in Aviation Language Testing

 

1.  Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) Testing

2.  PELA — Proficiency in English Language for Air Traffic Control

 

Appendix D.    Standards for Language Training and Testing

 

1.  Training Programme Standards

2.  Language Testing Standards — The International Language Testing  Association (ILTA) Code of Ethics

3.  Language Testing Standards — The Japan Language Testing Association (JLTA) Code of Practice

 

Appendix E.    Additional References

 

Part I.  References

Part II.  What is not Standard in Real Radiotelephony

 

Extracts by Servet BASOL

 

Bu konu kitap dışı yorumlarla bambaşka yerlere çekilmiştir.

Öncelikle şunu ifade etmeliyim.

APPENDIX 1. REQUIREMENTS FOR PROFICIENCY IN LANGUAGES USED FOR RADIOTELEPHONY COMMUNICATIONS

Asla bir Lisan Seviye Tespiti DEĞİLdir.

Adı üzerinde

 PROFICIENCY IN LANGUAGES USED FOR RADIOTELEPHONY COMMUNICATIONS

Yani bir iletişim becerisi tespitidir. Freyzyoloji temelli diksiyon ve mikrofon kullanımı üzerine verilen bir eğitimdir.

Bu derecelendirme is Dil, Din, Irk, Milliyet, Cinsiyet ve Ülke kavramlarının üzerinde olup havacılığın her kademesinde çalışacak yada çalışmakta olan tüm personeli kapsar.

Linguistic Awareness

1.  The ICAO language proficiency requirements apply to native and non-native speakers alike.

Eğitim ve sınav ASLA yazılı yapılamaz, sadece SÖZLÜ yapılacaktır.

Doc.4444 sayıların ve alfabenin nasıl okunacaği ile freyzyolojinin okunuşları hakkında sayfalar dolusu talimatlarla doludur.

Unutulmamalı ki bu eğitimde en çok başarısız olan Amerikalılardır.

Forumumuzda bile kavram kargaşası yaratan tabirleri ICAO dışı üretip kullananlar da onlardır.

Havacılık dili ortak bir dildir.

Ne Amerikan, ne İngiliz, ne İrlandalı ne de Avustralyalı gibi konuşamazsınız.

4, her zaman four olarak yazılır ama havacılıkta fov-ver, 9 da nay-nır diye okunur.

Bakın ICAO araştırması neleri belgelemiş;

 

1.1    BACKGROUND TO STRENGTHENED ICAO LANGUAGE

PROFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

 

1.1.1  In three accidents (one collision on the ground, one accident involving fuel exhaustion and one

controlled  flight  into  terrain),  over  800  people  lost  their  lives.  What  these  seemingly  different  types  of

accidents  had  in  common  was  that,  in  each  one,  accident  investigators  found  that  insufficient  English

language proficiency on the part of the flight crew or a controller had played a contributing role in the chain

of  events  leading  to  the  accident.  In  addition  to  these  high-profile  accidents, multiple  incidents  and  near

misses  as  a  result  of  language  problems  are  reported  annually,  instigating  a  review  of  communication

procedures and standards worldwide. 

 

1.1.2  Concern over the role of language in these and other aviation accidents and incidents has been

expressed  from  several  quarters. Data  obtained  from  the  ICAO Accident/Incident Data Reporting System

(ADREP)  database,  the United States’ National Transportation  and Safety Board  reports,  and  the United

Kingdom’s Mandatory Occurrence Reporting Systems corroborate that the role of language in accidents and

incidents  is significant. A number of other fatal and non-fatal accidents appear in the ICAO ADREP which

cite  “language  barrier”  as  a  factor.  Additionally,  the  United  Kingdom’s Mandatory  Occurrence  Reporting

Systems cite 134 language-related problems in fewer than six years. 

 

1.1.3  Such  concern  heightened  after  a  1996  mid-air  collision  in  which  312  passengers  and  crew

members were killed in yet another accident in which insufficient English language proficiency played a role.

 

Assembly Resolution A32-16

 

1.1.4  Concern  over  the  role  of  language  in  airline  accidents  led  to  the  1998  ICAO  Assembly

Resolution  A32-16,  in  which  the  ICAO  Council  was  urged  to  direct  the  Air  Navigation  Commission  to

consider  this matter with  a high degree of priority, and  complete  the  task of  strengthening  relevant  ICAO

provisions concerning language requirements, with a view to obligating Contracting States to take steps to

ensure that air traffic control personnel and flight crews  involved  in flight operations  in airspace where  the

use  of  the  English  language  is  required  are  proficient  in  conducting  and  comprehending  radiotelephony

communications in the English language. 

 

Development of the language proficiency provisions

 

1.1.5  In 2000, the Proficiency Requirements in Common English Study Group (PRICESG) convened

for the first time. PRICESG had been established to assist ICAO in advancing the task established by the Air

Navigation  Commission  on  language  competency,  which  included,  among  other  elements,  the  following

aspects: 

 

a)  carry  out  a  comprehensive  review  of  existing  provisions  concerning  all  aspects  of  airground

 and  ground-ground  voice  communications  in  international  civil aviation,  aimed at

the identification of deficiencies and/or shortcomings;

 

b)  develop ICAO provisions concerning standardized English  language testing requirements

and procedures; and

 

c)  develop minimum skill level requirements in the common usage of the English language.

 

 

1.2    REVIEW OF PROVISIONS PRIOR TO ADOPTION OF AMENDMENTS CONTAINING

LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

 

1.2.5  Although standardized ICAO phraseologies have been developed to cover many circumstances

(essentially routine events, but also including some predictable emergencies or non-routine events), no set

of  phraseologies  can  fully  describe  all  possible  circumstances  and  responses.  Aircraft  are  flown  and

controlled by humans, and human behaviour is infinitely variable; the need to communicate an infinite variety

of  circumstances  or  nuances  will  continue.  Pilots  and  air  traffic  controllers  need  sufficient  language

proficiency  to manage  all  of  the  potential  requirements  of  communications, which  can  range  from  routine

situations  to  circumstances  not  addressed  by  the  limited  phraseologies,  as well  as  non-routine  situations

and outright emergencies. Human language is characterized, in part, by the ability to create new meanings

and to use words in novel contexts, a creative and complex function of language which accommodates the

complex  and  unpredictable  nature  of  human  interaction,  even  within  the  relatively  constrained  context  of

aviation  communications.

 

Summary

 

1.2.6  The  ICAO  language  proficiency  requirements  cannot  completely  eliminate  all  sources  of

miscommunication in radiotelephony communications. Rather, the goal is to ensure, as far as possible, that

all speakers have sufficient proficiency  in  the  language used  to negotiate  for meaning,  in order  to handle

non-routine  situations.  Communication  errors  will  probably  never  be  completely  eliminated;  however,

compliance with the ICAO language proficiency requirements will enable speakers to more readily recognize

errors and work towards the successful and safe resolution of misunderstandings.

 

Anahtar kelimeler burada miscommunication ve misunderstanding kelimeleridir.

Önemli olan çok iyi bir İngilizce ile talimat vermek değil, yerinde bir freyzolojiyi her dilden insanın kolayca anlayacağı bir akıcılık içerisinde düzgün telaffuz ile yanlış anlaşılmaya meydan vermeyecek bir şekilde vurgu ile iletişim yapmaktır.

Örneklerle açıklamak gerekirse;

Communication Level-3:

Soran da cevaplayanda Level-3 örnekleridir. Kuvvetli başlayıp zayıflayan bir tonlama, iletişimi aksatmaktadır.

Pronaunciation Level-4:

Beğenseniz de beğenmeseniz de anlaşılır olması önemlidir. “Ağız” yoktur, yani anadilini öncelikle size anımsatmaz ama anlaşılır.

Vocabulary Level-4:

Gereken kelimeler kullanılmaktadır ve ifade edilmek istenen karşı tarafça anlaşılmaktadır.

Interaction Level-4:

Zor da olsa bu karşılıklı görüşme gerçekleşmiştir. Burada hedef bu iletişimin devamıdır.

Fluency Level-4:

Gerekli olan akıcılık mevcuttur. Eee ler ve hımm lar azalmış ve amaca yönelik ikili konuşma kesintisiz sağlanmaktadır.

Fluency Level-5:

Buradaki akıcılığa “vurgu” eklenmiştir. Söylenen cümlenin içerisindeki asıl kelimenin üzerine basılarak söyleniyor olması, önemini arttıran vurgu ile olmaktadır.

Bu bir RADIOTELEPHONY COMMUNICATIONS eğitimidir.

Havacılık içerisinde hangi meslek grubunun hangi seviyede konuşuyor/iletişim yapıyor olması tabloda belirtilmiştir.

Mikrofon kullanmak, tonlama ve vurgu ile konuşmak, mesleki kelime ile akıcı cümle kurmak gibi eğitimler zaten ilgililerin eğitim planlarında mevcuttur. Hedef ise bu eğitimleri daha düzgün ve ciddi yapmaktır.

 

Kaza nedenleri arasına bu konunun girmesi, zaten var olan bu eğitimin daha da ciddiye alınmasını sağlamaya yöneliktir.

 

Sevgiler

 

Servet BASOL

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